Judo is a system of unarmed combat focused on throwing, pinning, and forcing an opponent to yield using joint locks and chokeholds. Developed in Japan in 1882 by Jigoro Kano, Judo distinguished itself from other martial arts of its time by removing traditional strikes and weapon skills and emphasizing movement efficiency and leverage of the opponent's force.  

Taekwondo (/ˈtɛˈkwɒnˈdoʊ/) is a Korean martial art. Taekwondo was developed during the 1940s and 1950s by various Korean martial artists combining and incorporating the elements of Karate and Chinese Martial Arts along with the indigenous Korean martial arts traditions of Taekkyeon, Subak, and Gwonbeop.

The oldest governing body for taekwondo is the Korea Taekwondo Association (KTA), formed in 1959 by a collaborative effort by representatives from the nine original kwans, or martial arts schools, in Korea. The main international organizational bodies for taekwondo today are the International Taekwon-Do Federation (ITF), founded by General Choi Hong Hi in 1966, and the World Taekwondo Federation (WTF), founded in 1973 by the KTA. Gyeorugi ([kjʌɾuɡi]), a type of full-contact sparring, has been an Olympic event since 1992. The body known for taekwondo in the Olympics is the World Taekwondo Federation.

​​​​Hapkido (Korean: “way of coordinated energy”) is a Korean form of unarmed self-defense based on the circular foot sweeps and kicks of traditional Korean tae kyon but incorporating punches and circular throws and a yielding principle similar to that of aikido. It is characterized by focusing on deflecting an opponent's attacks using punches, kicks, throws, joint locks, and grappling.